Diet for diabetes: a menu for a week, what you can and cannot

vegetables for diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic endocrine pathology in which metabolism is disturbed due to a lack or improper action of the hormone insulin.

Insulin-dependent (type 1) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes (type 2) are distinguished.

In the first case, patients should inject insulin preparations in injections, since the hormone in their body is produced in insufficient quantities or is completely absent.

In the second type, the interaction of insulin with cells is disrupted.

Despite the different mechanisms of the development of pathology, the main role in its therapy is assigned to dietary nutrition.

Features of the diet for diabetics

In the past, a food inhibition system was the only way to curb hyperglycemia, or high glucose levels. Now the diet of patients has expanded significantly. Diabetics are advised to adhere to several important rules for effective blood glucose control.

Patients should not go hungry or overeat. These conditions are dangerous to their health. You need to eat so that the amount of carbohydrates consumed is evenly distributed throughout the day.

General dietary requirements:

  • fractional nutrition (at least 6 times a day);
  • calculation of consumed carbohydrates;
  • limiting animal fats;
  • the introduction of plant foods into the diet;
  • preference for steamed food, in the oven, boiled;
  • avoiding foods that increase carbohydrate load, or limiting them;
  • balanced diet;
  • replacing sugar with substitutes;
  • consumption of coarse fiber foods;
  • compliance with the drinking regime;
  • reducing salt intake;
  • elimination of alcohol.

You can diversify your diet by purchasing utensils that allow you to cook food without oil.

In order for carbohydrates to be absorbed more slowly and not to provoke jumps in the increase in blood sugar, it is worth adhering to the following recommendations:

  1. Eat food that is coarse or grainy, such as crumbly cereals instead of mashed or boiled ones.
  2. Meals should not be hot as temperature affects glucose uptake.
  3. Fiber in foods inhibits the absorption of simple carbohydrates and helps to remove cholesterol.
  4. Simple carbohydrates are best consumed after the main meal.

The menu can include foods that contain simple carbohydrates with fiber, such as fruits and berries. The absorption of glucose is slowed down if consumed with proteins (protein cream) or fats. However, do not forget that "slow" carbohydrates are also absorbed into the bloodstream, increasing sugar.

weighing vegetables for diabetes

Differences in nutrition in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

Since the reasons for the increase in blood sugar in the first and second types of the disease are different, there are several approaches to the diet of patients. For insulin-dependent patients, nutrition is more varied. Since they suffer from this pathology more often at a young age, high-calorie foods are included in the diet. When drawing up the diet, the consumed grain units are taken into account.

In type 2 diabetes, the main goal of nutrition is weight loss. In this case, the menu is calculated according to the calorie content of the products. The patient's diet is more rigid. They are not allowed sugar, fatty foods and foods that increase cholesterol.

Bread unit

counting bread units for diabetes cartoon

The concept of "bread unit" (XE) was introduced to account for the quantitative composition of carbohydrates. For 1 XE, it is considered to be 25 g of bread or 12 g of sugar (carbohydrates). A diagram of bread units is necessary for diabetics to calculate the short insulin administered.

1 XE requires 2-4 units. insulin. The individual need for additional administration of insulin according to XE is determined using a self-control diary, which must be kept by the patient.

At one meal, a diabetic should eat no more than 7 XE. The main carbohydrate load occurs in the first half of the day.

In order not to constantly calculate the bread units by the weight of products, we created tables of products taking into account their energy value.

What is the glycemic index of foods

The glycemic index (GI) is an indicator that indicates how much blood sugar can increase with the use of a particular product compared to taking glucose.

High GI foods (70 or more):

  • honey,
  • glucose;
  • sugar;
  • mashed potatoes;
  • sweet soda;
  • sweets - corn sticks, puffed rice.

Average GI (56-69):

  • melon;
  • banana;
  • oatmeal;
  • black bread.

The lowest GI have:

  • dairy products;
  • milk;
  • fruits;
  • peas, beans, lentils, and other legumes.

The rate of absorption is influenced by cooking, food integrity and temperature.

In diabetes mellitus, only medium and low GI foods are allowed.

List of allowed and prohibited products

The principles of a diet for diabetics with different types of disease differ. However, there are dishes that endocrinologists do not recommend to eat.

The list of prohibited foods includes:

  • fried potatoes, fries, chips;
  • sweet fruits - grapes;
  • fatty meats;
  • smoked meats;
  • canned food in oil;
  • pates;
  • sweet curds, curd mass;
  • sweet yoghurts;
  • margarine;
  • white bread and white flour pastries;
  • juices from the store;
  • soda;
  • alcohol;
  • sweets, chocolate;
  • jam;
  • condensed milk;
  • fast food.

Patients will have to fall in love with these foods and drinks:

  • mineral water;
  • rosehip compote;
  • vegetable juices;
  • freshly squeezed juices from sweet and sour berries and fruits;
  • unsweetened citrus fruits;
  • frozen and fresh berries;
  • low-fat dairy products without sugar;
  • dietary meat - chicken, turkey, veal, rabbit meat;
  • cabbage;
  • legumes;
  • mushrooms;
  • tomatoes;
  • eggplant;
  • greens;
  • asparagus;
  • broccoli;
  • milk;
  • wholemeal baked goods;
  • seafood;
  • fish.

To reduce the starch content of vegetables and cereals, it is recommended to soak them before cooking.

Menu compilation rules

When compiling a menu, it is worth considering not only the carbohydrate load and calories of foods, but also the activity of the diabetic. Exercise lowers blood sugar levels. In type 1 diabetes, it is recommended to eat 1 XE for every hour of physical activity. This will prevent you from changing your bolus insulin dose.

With obesity, a dietitian helps to compose a diet taking into account the energy content (calorie content) of foods and daily energy expenditure during physical activity. The calculation takes into account the gender, age and degree of obesity of the patient. It is allowed to arrange fasting days (with type 2 diabetes). However, fasting is contraindicated in such patients.

During the preparation of the menu, the general condition of the diabetic is taken into account. Pregnant and lactating women, adolescents, and debilitated patients need protein intake. If the patient has renal or hepatic impairment, ketoacidosis, protein intake is reduced.

Do not forget about other nutrients that are involved in metabolism: vitamins, zinc, copper, manganese. Due to the tendency of patients to pathologies of the cardiovascular system, the salt content in dishes is reduced.

Sample menu for a week


  • breakfast: buckwheat porridge, protein-bran bread with butter, tea;
  • snack: cabbage salad with egg;
  • lunch: chicken soup, vegetable salad with herbs, green beans with white meat cutlet, compote, diabetic rye bread;
  • afternoon snack: bread with yogurt;
  • dinner: steamed zrazy with fish, rye bread, vegetable salad;
  • snack: fermented milk drink.


  • breakfast: oatmeal, grain bread with butter, tea;
  • snack: salad of parsley, onions and mushrooms;
  • lunch: pea soup, baked chicken with vegetables, vegetable salad, grain bread, drink;
  • afternoon snack: fermented baked milk with biscuits;
  • dinner: fish stewed with vegetables, grain bread, juice;
  • snack: yogurt.


  • breakfast: porridge "Artek", protein-bran bread with butter, coffee;
  • snack: salad of celery, apples and carrots;
  • lunch: borscht, buckwheat porridge with a steam cutlet, sauerkraut salad, protein-bran bread, compote;
  • afternoon snack: cottage cheese with fruit;
  • dinner: bigos with sauerkraut and meat, protein-bran bread, juice;
  • snack: baked apple.


  • breakfast: eggs, rye bread with butter, tea;
  • snack: cottage cheese with yogurt;
  • lunch: green borscht, baked eggplant with meat, tomato salad with low-fat sour cream, rye bread, compote;
  • afternoon snack: curd pudding with tea;
  • dinner: meat stew with vegetables, rye bread, drink;
  • snack: bread with kefir.
allowed foods for diabetes


  • breakfast: pearl barley porridge, grain bread with butter, tea (chicory, coffee);
  • snack: fruit salad with yogurt;
  • lunch: fish soup, fish cutlet with vegetable garnish, bell pepper and cucumber salad, grain bread, citrus drink;
  • afternoon snack: bread with milk;
  • dinner: steam cutlet with milk sauce, porridge, grain bread, lemonade;
  • snack: fruit.


  • breakfast: omelet with veal, protein-bran bread with cheese, tea;
  • snack: cottage cheese with berries;
  • lunch: mushroom soup, porridge with boiled (baked) meat, canned peas with onions and herbs, protein-bran bread, compote;
  • afternoon snack: oatmeal cookies with fermented baked milk;
  • dinner: zucchini stuffed with meat, porridge, protein-bran bread, a drink;
  • snack: fermented baked milk.


  • breakfast: brown rice with minced meat and cabbage (cabbage rolls), rye bread with butter, tea;
  • snack: bread with yogurt;
  • lunch: soup with meatballs, omelet with chicken, red cabbage salad, rye bread, drink;
  • afternoon snack: kefir with biscuits;
  • dinner: fish cakes, baked potatoes, rye bread, drink;
  • snack: biscuit with milk.

The trial menu is compiled by a nutritionist. In the future, the diabetic himself supplements the diet, taking into account the recommendations of the doctor.

Ready meals for diabetics

To eat properly with diabetes mellitus, you need to spend a lot of time and effort. Most diabetics simply do not have enough time to properly compose the menu and prepare food, so now I would like to tell you about the Cryodiet company, which helps make life easier for people with diabetes.

Cryodieta is a delivery service for ready-made and tasty food not only for diabetics, but also for people who want to lose weight. The menu was prepared by competent specialists - nutritionists and doctors.

Thanks to the use of a special technology "shock freezing", you just have to warm up food in a microwave or multicooker and have a tasty meal. At the same time, freezing retains all the nutrients.

The main advantages of "Cryodiet":

  • production of products in an ecologically clean area of the Novgorod region;
  • delivery without delay in person;
  • variety of food;
  • shock freezing (keeps food without preservatives);
  • more affordable prices compared to competitors.

Examples of dishes

dietary meals for diabetes

A ready-made food delivery service for diabetics operates in large cities, so if you want to eat healthy diet food and not spend a lot of time on it, order a weekly menu on the official website.

Sugar substitutes

So that patients do not suffer from the lack of sweets, sweeteners can be added to the dishes. They are divided into three groups:

  1. Carbohydrates - fructose, sorbose, xylitol, sorbitol, molasses.
  2. Protein sweeteners - miraculin, monelin.
  3. Synthetic - aspartame, sodium cyclamate.

Endocrinologists recommend using the natural sweetener stevia. Its leaves contain a complex of glycosides, which is 200 times sweeter than sugar. The sweetener is beneficial for obesity, high cholesterol, and high blood sugar. Due to its ability to normalize metabolism, stevia helps to restore the antitoxic function of the liver.

Plant glycosides stimulate immunity, lower sugar levels, and have a beneficial effect on the digestive and endocrine systems. Drinks containing stevia extract correct cravings for sugary and fatty foods and help you get rid of extra pounds.

High blood sugar is not a death sentence for patients if you learn how to make up a diet and use healthy sweets instead of sugar. Also, do not forget about the obligatory consultation with an endocrinologist.